Important Articles of the Indian Constitution

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The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It is a living document, the permanent instrument which makes the government system work. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. B. R. Ambedkar is regarded as the chief architect of the Indian Constitution.

Indian Constitution when adopted by Constituent Assembly in 1949 had 395 articles and 22 parts but after subsequent constitutional amendments as of now Indian constitution contains more than 444 articles in 25 parts. 

We understand that it's not easy to by-heart all articles in Indian Constitutions so here in this post we are listing  important Articles of the Indian Constitution and their Purposes :

Articles that every competitive aspirant should know

S.No. Article Importance
1. Article 12 –35  Fundamental Rights available
2. Article 36-50 Directive Principles of state policy
3. Article 51A  Fundamental Duties of every citizen
4. Article 80 Number of seats for the Rajya Sabha
5. Article 81  Number of seats for the Lok Sabha
6. Article 343   Hindi as official language
7. Article 356  Imposition of President’s Rule in states
8. Article 370 Special status to Kashmir
9. Article 395  Repeals India Independence Act and Government of India Act, 1935

Important Articles of Indian Constitution and their Purposes

Part 1 (Art. 1 to art. 4) : The Union and it's territory 

  • Article 1 - Name and Territory of the Union
  • Article 2 – Admission or establishment of new States
  • Article 3 – Alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing states
  • Article 4 – Provide amendment of 1st and 4th Schedules and supplemental, incidental and consequential matters

Part 2 (Art. 5 to art. 11): Citizenship

  • Article 5 – citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution
  • Article 6 – Rights of certain persons who have migrated from Pakistan
  • Article 7 – rights of citizenship of migrants to Pakistan
  • Article 8 – rights of Indian origin people who reside outside India
  • Article 9 – persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign state not to be citizens
  • Article 10 - continuance of the rights of citizenships
  • Article 11 – parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law

Part 3 (Art.12 to art.35): Fundamental rights 

  • Article 12 – definition
  • Article 13 – laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.

Note : It is to be noted that originally, constitution provided seven basic fundamental rights but now there are only six rights because Right to property  was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978. Now it is legal right not a fundamental right.

Right to Equality (Art. 14 to Art. 18)

  • Article 14 - Relates to Right to Equality
  • Article 15 – prohibition of discrimination of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
  • Article 16 – equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
  • Article 17 - Abolishes the practice of un-touch ability
  • Article 18 – abolition of titles

Right to Freedom (Art. 19 to art. 22)

Article 19 - Deals with six freedoms of Indian citizens namely:

(a) Right to freedom of speech and expression
(b) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms
(c) Right to form associations or unions
(d) Right to move freely throughout the territory of India
(e) Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India
(f) Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business

Article 20 – protection in respect of conviction for offences

Article 21 - Provides protection to life and liberty to all persons

Article 21A - Right to elementary education

Article 22 - Affords protection against arbitrary arrest & detention

Right against Exploitation (Art.23 to art. 24 )

  • Article 23 - Prohibits the traffic in human beings and beggars
  • Article 24 - Prohibits the employment of children below 14 years

Right to Freedom of Religion (Art.25 to art. 28)

  • Articles 25 – freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation ofreligion
  • Article 26 – freedom to manage religious affairs
  • Article 27 – freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion
  • Article 28 – freedom as to attendance at religious worship in certain educational institutions

Cultural and Educational Rights (Art.29 to art. 30)

  • Article 29 – protection of interests of minorities
  • Article 30 – right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions

Right to Constitutional Remedies 

  • Article 32 – remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this part

Part 4 (Art 36 to art. 51):  Directive  principles of state policy 

  • Article 36 – definition
  • Article 37 – application of the principles contained in this part
  • Article 39A – equal justice and free legal aid
  • Article 40 - Deals with the formation of Panchayats
  • Article 41 – right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases
  • Article 43 – living wage for workers
  • Article 43A – participation of workers in management of industries
  • Article 44 - Uniform Civil Code for the Citizens
  • Article 45 - Free and compulsory education to all children below 14 years of age
  • Article 46 – promotion of educational and economic interests of SCs, STs and other weaker section
  • Article 47 – duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health
  • Article 48 – organization of agriculture and animal husbandry
  • Article 49 – protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance
  • Article 50 - Separation of Judiciary
  • Article 51 - Promotion of International peace & security

Part 4A: Fundamental Duties 

Article 51(A) - Relates to list of Fundamental Duties.

Note : Originally it contained 10 duties but now after 86th amendments act 2002 it contains 11 duties

Part 5: The Union

  • Article 52 – the President of India
  • Article 53 – executive power of the Union
  • Article 54 – election of President
  • Article 61 – procedure for impeachment of the President
  • Article 63 – the Vice President of India
  • Article 64 – the Vice President to be ex official chairman of the Council of States
  • Article 66 – election of Vice President
  • Article 72 – power of President to grant pardons
  • Article 74 – Council of Ministers to aid and advice the President
  • Article 76 – Attorney General for India
  • Article 79 – constitution of Parliament
  • Article 80 – composition of the council of states
  • Article 81 – composition of the House of the people
  • Article 83 – duration of Houses of Parliament
  • Article 93 – the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People
  • Article 105 – Powers, Privileges of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees
  • Article 109 – special procedure in respect of money bills
  • Article 110 – Definition of Money Bills
  • Article 112 –Annual Financial Statement (Budget)
  • Article 114 – appropriation of Bills
  • Article 123 – Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament
  • Article 124 – establishment and constitution of Supreme Court
  • Article 125 – Salaries of judges
  • Article 126 – appointment of acting Chief Justice
  • Article 127 – Appointment of ad hoc Judges
  • Article 128 – attendance of retired judges at sittings of the Supreme Court
  • Article 129 – Supreme Court to be a court of record
  • Article 130 – Seat of Supreme Court
  • Article 136 – special leave to appeal by Supreme Court
  • Article 137 – review of judgments of orders by the Supreme Court
  • Article 141 – Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts
  • Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor General of India
  • Article 149 – Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor General

Part 6: The States 

  • Article 153 – Governors of States
  • Article 154 – Executive power of State
  • Article 161 – power of Governor to grant pardons
  • Article 165 – Advocate General for the state
  • Article 213 – power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature
  • Article 214 – High courts for States
  • Article 215 – High Courts to be courts of record
  • Article 226 – power of High Courts to issue certain writs
  • Article 233 – appointment of district judges
  • Article 235 – Control over subordinate courts

Part 8: The Union Territories

  • Article 239 – administration of Union Territories
  • Article 240 – power of President to make regulations for certain Union Territories
  • Article 241 – High courts for Union Territories

Part 9: The Panchayats

  • Article 243A – Gram Sabha
  • Article 243B – constitution of Panchayats

Part 9A: The Municipalities

  • Article 243P – definitions
  • Article 243ZG – Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters

Part 10: The Scheduled and tribal areas  

  • Article 244 – Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas

Part 11: Relations between the union and the states 

  • Article 245 – extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States
  • Article 262 - Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of Inter -state rivers or river valleys
  • Article 263 – Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council

Part 12: Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits 

  • Article 266 – consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States
  • Article 267 – Contingency Fund, Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States
  • Article 280 – Finance Commission
  • Article 300A – Persons not to be deprived of property saves by authority of law

Part 13: Trade, commerce and intercourse within the territory of India 

  • Article 301 – Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse
  • Article 302 – Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse

Part 14 : Services under the union and the states 

  • Article 308 – Interpretation
  • Article 312 – All-India Services
  • Article 315 – Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States
  • Article 320 – Functions of Public Service Commissions
  • Article 323 – Reports of Public Service Commissions

Part 14A: Tribunals

  • Article 323A – Administrative tribunals
  • Article 323B – Tribunals for other matters

Part 15: Elections

  • Article 324 – Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission
  • Article 325 – No person to be intelligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex
  • Article 326 – Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage
  • Article 329 – Bar to interference by court in electoral matters

Part 16: Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities

  • Article 330 – Reservation of seats for SC and ST in the House of the People
  • Article 338 – National Commission for SC
  • Article 340 – Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of BCs
  • Article 341 – Scheduled Castes
  • Article 342 – Scheduled Tribes

Part  17: Official Language

  • Article 343 – Official Language of the Union
  • Article 345 – official language or languages of a State
  • Article 348 – Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc.
  • Article 351 – Directive for development of the Hindi Language

Part 18: Emergency Provisions 

  • Article 352 – Proclamation of Emergency
  • Article 356 – Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States
  • Article 360 – Provisions as to financial emergency

Part 19: Miscellaneous 

  • Article 361 – Protection of President and Governors
  • Article 367 – interpretation

Part 20: Amendment of Constitution

  • Article 368 – Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.

Part 21: Special, Transitional and Temporary Provisions  

  • Article 369 – Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State list as if they matter in the Concurrent list
  • Article 370 – Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir
  • Article 371A – Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
  • Article 371B – Special provision with respect to the State of Assam
  • Article 371C – Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur
  • Article 371D – Special provision with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh
  • Article 371E – Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh
  • Article 371F – Special provision with respect to the State of Sikkim
  • Article 371G – Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram
  • Article 371H – Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh
  • Article 371-I – Special provision with respect to the State of Goa
  • Article 371J – Special status for Hyderabad-Karnataka region
  • Article 392 – Power of the President to remove difficulties

Part 22: Short Text, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals

  • Article 393 – Short Title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India
  • Article 395 - Repeals

 

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