UN Peacekeeping Missions

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UN Peacekeeping Missions 

--- * in April 2013 UN Security Council approved New Mission in Mali "MINUSMA" taking total number to 15

--- *In April 2014 UN Security Council approved New Mission in Central African Republic "MINUSCA" taking total number to 16


A peacekeeping operation is led by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), and works to create the conditions for lasting peace in a country torn by conflict. It consists of military, police and civilian personnel, who work to deliver security, political and early peace building support.  United Nations Peacekeeping Forces was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988. [SEE Nobel Peace Prizes to UN Organization ]

  • Total UN Peacekeeping operations since 1948 : 68
  • Current peacekeeping operations (as on May 2014):  16*
  • Current peace operations directed by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations: 16* [In addition to peacekeeping operations, DPKO directs one political mission: the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)]
  • Countries contributing uniformed personnel:  116

(all data are as of 31st May 2014)

Current operations :

  1. United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) : since April 1991- in accordance with settlement proposals accepted in August 1988 by Morocco and the Frente POLISARIO ( Popular para la Liberación de Saguia el-Hamra y de Río de Oro) and approved by the Security Council, It provided for a transitional period for the preparation of a referendum in which the people of Western Sahara would choose between independence and integration with Morocco. The Special Representative of the Secretary-General was to have sole and exclusive responsibility over matters relating to the referendum and was to be assisted in his tasks by an integrated group of civilian, military and civilian police personnel, to be known as the MINURSO.
  2. United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) : since June 2004- to restore a secure and stable environment, to promote the political process, to strengthen Haiti’s Government institutions and rule-of-law-structures, as well as to promote and to protect human rights. Numbers increased following 2010 devastating earthquake to support the immediate recovery, reconstruction and stability efforts.

  3. United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) : since July 2010 - took over from an earlier UN peacekeeping operation – the U N O Mission in Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC) – on 1 July 2010, to reflect the new phase reached in the country. The new mission has been authorized to use all necessary means to carry out its mandate relating, among other things, to the protection of civilians, humanitarian personnel and human rights defenders under imminent threat of physical violence and to support the Government of the DRC in its stabilization and peace consolidation efforts.
  4. African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) : since July 2007 - protection of civilians is its core mandate, but is also tasked with contributing to security for humanitarian assistance, monitoring and verifying implementation of agreements, assisting an inclusive political process, contributing to the promotion of human rights and the rule of law, and monitoring and reporting on the situation along the borders with Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR).

  5. United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) : in Syrian Golan Heights since June 1974 (for implementing disengagement agreement between Israel and Syria and maintaining ceasefire)

  6. United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) : since March 1964 to prevent further fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities, to supervise ceasefire lines, maintain a buffer zone, undertake humanitarian activities and support the good offices mission of the Secretary-General.

  7. United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) : since March 1978- to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security and assist the Lebanese Government in restoring its effective authority in the area. The mandate had to be adjusted twice, due to the developments in 1982 and 2000. Following the July/August 2006 crisis (war with Israel), the Council enhanced the Force and decided that in addition to the original mandate, it would, among other things, monitor the cessation of hostilities; accompany and support the Lebanese armed forces as they deploy throughout the south of Lebanon; and extend its assistance to help ensure humanitarian access to civilian populations and the voluntary and safe return of displaced persons.
  8. United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) : In Abyei, Sudan since June 2011 -The operation will monitor the flashpoint border between north and south Sudan, and is authorized to use force in protecting civilians and humanitarian workers in Abyei. UNISFA’s establishment came after the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) reached an agreement in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to demilitarize Abyei and let Ethiopian troops to monitor the area.

  9. United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) : In South Sudan since July 2011- UNMISS is on the ground to consolidate peace and security and to help establish conditions for development as the Security Council determined that the situation faced by South Sudan continued to constitute a threat to international peace and security in the region.
  10. United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire/ Ivory Coast (UNOCI) : since April 2004- to facilitate the implementation by the Ivorian parties of the peace agreement signed by them in January 2003. Following the 2010 Presidential election and the ensuing political crisis in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), UNOCI has remained on the ground to protect civilians and support the Ivorian Government in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of former combatants, as well as on security sector reform.

  11. United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK): since June 1999- to provide an interim administration for Kosovo under which the people of Kosovo could enjoy substantial autonomy. UNMIK had authority over the territory and people of Kosovo, including all legislative and executive powers and administration of the judiciary. Subsequently, following the declaration of independence by the Kosovo authorities and the entry into force of a new constitution on 15 June 2008, the tasks of the Mission have significantly been modified to focus primarily on the promotion of security, stability and respect for human rights in Kosovo.
  12. United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) : since September 2003- to support the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and the peace process; protect United Nations staff, facilities and civilians; support humanitarian and human rights activities; as well as assist in national security reform, including national police training and formation of a new, restructured military.

  13. United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) : In India and Pakistan since January 1949 -to observe developments pertaining to the strict observance of the ceasefire of 17 December 1971 and report thereon to the Secretary-General ,for the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
  14. United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) : In Middle East since May 1948, Set up in May 1948, UNTSO was the first ever peacekeeping operation established by the United Nations. Since then, UNTSO military observers have remained in the Middle East to monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating and assist other UN peacekeeping operations in the region to fulfill their respective mandates.

Practice Questions
Q1
Q.no:-1/5
 

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