4. White Biotechnology:- It is also known as industrial biotechnology, is biotechnology applied to industrial processes.
- This technology uses cells or enzymes for the production of desirable compound.
- in fermentation technology living cells, enzymes, yeast, proteins are used to catalyze biochemical reactions.
- Most of the food products are produced by using this technology like wine, beer, tea, bred, pickle foods.
- The recombinant DNA technology is used along with microbial fermentation for production of human insulin, the hepatitis B vaccines, enzymes, biodegradable plastic, laundry detergent enzymes.
Growing of cells outside the body.
a) ANIMAL CELL CULTURE
b) PLANT CELL CULTURE
This technology produces antibodies with the help of immune system cells.
- Uses of monoclonal antibodies :
- Find environmental pollutants
- Detect harmful microorganism in food
- Diagnose infectious diseases in humans, animals and in plants.
- Find differences between cancer and normal cell.
- Nanotechnology – the study, manipulation and manufacture of ultra-small structures and machines made of as few as one molecule was made possible by the development of microscopic tools for imaging and manipulating single molecules and measuring the electromagnetic forces between them.
- Nano-biotechnology joins the breakthroughs in nanotechnology to those in molecular biology.
- Some of the potential applications of the nano-biotechnology :
- Increasing the speed and power of disease diagnostics.
- Creating bio-nanostructures for inserting functional molecules into cells
- Improving the specificity and timing of drug delivery
- Miniaturizing biosensors by integrating the biological and electronic components into a single, microscopic component
- Microarrays: Microarray technology is transforming research because it permits analysis of tens of thousands of samples simultaneously.
- Scientists currently use microarray technology to study gene structure and function.
- Various microarrays can be created by nanobiotechnology like DNA microarrays, protein microarrays and tissue microarrays.
- DNA microarrays are used to:
a) detect mutations in disease-related genes
b) monitor gene activity
c) diagnose infectious diseases and identify the best antibiotic treatment
d) identify genes important to crop productivity
e) improve screening for microbes used in bioremediation.
- Protein microarrays can be used to:
a) Discover protein biomarkers that indicate disease stages
b) access potential efficacy and toxicity of drugs before clinical trials
c) measure differential protein production across cell types and developmental stages and in both healthy and diseased states
d) study the relationship between protein structure and function.
- Tissue Microarrays: It allows the analysis of thousands of tissue samples on a single glass slide are being used to detect protein profiles in healthy and diseases tissues and validate potential drug targets.
Advantages of Biotechnology in Agriculture specially in the crop biotechnology i.e. GM (genetically modified) crops:
- Increase yields
- Resistance to diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses
- The ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions such as freezes and droughts
- Resistance to pests such as insects, weeds and nematodes.
1. Environmental Hazards
- Unintended harm to other organisms
- Reduced effectiveness of pesticides
- Gene Transfer to non-target species
- Leakage of GM proteins into soil
- Increased allergy among children due to consumption
- Unknown effects on human health in long-term